Submitted and in preparation

  • Patil, I., Zucchelli, M. M., Kool, W., Campbell, S., Fornasier, F., Calò€, M., Silani, G., Cikara, M. & Cushman, F. (in preparation). Reasoning supports utilitarian resolutions to moral dilemmas across diverse measures.
  • Bolenz, F., Kool, W., Reiter, A. M. F., Kiebel, S. J., & Eppinger, B. (in preparation). Meta-control of learning strategies in human aging.
  • Kool, W., & Botvinick, M. M. (submitted). A utility map for mental effort.
  • Kool, W., Cushman, F. A.*, & Gershman, S. J.* (in preparation). Metacontrol in reinforcement learning.

Journal articles

  • Patzelt, E. H., Kool, W., Millner, A. J. & Gershman, S. J. (2019). The transdiagnostic structure of mental effort avoidance. Scientific Reports, 9, 1689.
  • Patzelt, E. H., Kool, W., Millner, A. J. & Gershman, S. J. (2019). Incentives boost model-based control across a range of severity on several psychiatric constructs. Biological Psychiatry, 85, 425-433.
  • Kool, W., & Botvinick, M. M. (2018). Mental labour. Nature Human Behaviour, 2, 899-908.
  • Kool, W., Gershman, S. J.*, & Cushman, F. A.* (2018). Planning complexity registers as a cost in metacontrol. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 30, 1391-1404.
  • Kool, W., Gershman, S. J.*, & Cushman, F. A.* (2017). Cost-benefit arbitration between multiple reinforcement learning systems. Psychological Science, 28, 1321-1333.
  • Shenhav, A., Musslick, S., Lieder, F., Kool, W., Griffiths, T.L., Cohen, J.D., & Botvinick, M.M. (2017). Towards a rational and mechanistic account of mental effort. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience, 40, 99-124.
  • Kool, W., Cushman, F. A.*, & Gershman, S. J.* (2016). When does model-based control pay off? PLOS Computational Biology, e1005090.
  • Gold, J.M., Kool, W., Botvinick, M., Hubzin, L., August, S., & Waltz, J. (2015). Cognitive effort avoidance and detection in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 15, 145-154.
  • Kool, W., Conway, A. R. A., & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2014). Sequential dynamics in visual short-term memory. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 76, 1885-1901.
  • Braver, T. S., Krug, M. K., Chiew, K. S., Kool, W., Westbrook, J. A., Clement, N. J., . . ., Somerville, L. H. (2014). Mechanisms of motivation-cognition interaction: challenges and opportunities. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 14, 443-472.
  • Kool, W., & Botvinick, M. (2014). A labor/leisure trade-off in cognitive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 131-141.
  • Kool, W., McGuire, J. T., Wang, G. J., & Botvinick, M. M. (2013). Behavioral and neural evidence for an intrinsic cost of self-control. PLOS ONE, 8, e72626.
  • Kool, W., Getz, S. J., & Botvinick, M. M. (2013). Neural representation of probability: Evidence from the Illusion of Control. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 852-861.
  • Kool, W.*, McGuire, J. T.*, Rosen, Z. B., & Botvinick, M. M. (2010). Decision making and the avoidance of cognitive demand. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 139, 665-682.
  • Colzato, L. S.,Kool, W., & Hommel, B. (2008). Stress modulation of visuomotor binding. Neuropsychologia, 46, 1542-1548.

  • Kool, W., & Botvinick, M. (2013). The intrinsic cost of cognitive control. Behavioral Brain Sciences, 36, 697-698. Comment on Kurzban, R., Duckworth, A., Kable, J. W., & Myers, J. (2013). An opportunity cost model of subjective effort and task performance.


  • Kool, W., Cushman, F. A.*, & Gershman, S. J.* (2018). Competition and cooperation between multiple reinforcement learning systems. In R. W. Morris, A. M. Bornstein, & A. Shenhav (Eds.), Understanding Goal-Directed Decision Making: Computations and Circuits (pp. 153-178). New York, Elsevier.
  • Kool, W.*, Shenhav, A. S.*, & Botvinick, M. M. (2017). Cognitive control as cost-benefit decision making. In T. Egner (Ed.), Wiley Handbook of Cognitive Control (pp. 167-189). Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

* authors contributed equally

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